How­ever, most in­di­vid­u­als have a lifes­pan of 30 to 40 days. This pest is considered to be of concern from a regulatory perspective. The life table of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) was studied on tomato at room temperature under laboratory conditions at Vegetable Entomology Lab., Department of Entomology, YSPUHF, Nauni, Solan. S. littoralis is present in the Palearctic region from Africa and Southern‐Europe, the Arabian peninsula into Iran. 0000006945 00000 n S. littoralis is found widely in Africa, Mediterranean Europe and Middle Eastern countries.It is a highly polyphagous organism that is a pest of many cultivated plants and crops. 0000003515 00000 n Nasr ESA (1973) Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the life cycle of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. In addition, to understand the influence of agrochemicals on expression of resistance in plants against insects, it is also Spodoptera litura merupakan salah satu jenis hama penting yang merusak daun kedelai dibandingkan dengan hama perusak daun lainnya (Adie et al., 2012). The eggs of the cluster caterpillar (Spodoptera litura [Fabricius]) (Lepi- doptera: Noctuidae) are laid in clusters of 200 to 300 underneath leaves and covered with brown scales from the body of the mother. There are five instars are present in larval stage, these are key elements in damaging the crops, and the M. Philip of Michigan Department of Agriculture. 0000002564 00000 n 0000011130 00000 n <> Study of the biological cycle of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) at different temperatures. 0000010604 00000 n The eggs hatch in about 4 … Spodoptera, such as S. litura (F.), S. exigua (Hübner), and S. mauri a (Boisduval), are major pests of sever al crops in India with a rich arra y of indigenous natural enemies. This manual gives the trained trainers all the information they will need in order to support and sustain an IPM approach for FAW management in their communities, and it provides information that will allow trainers to provide behavioural change communication targeted at farmers. Potential Economic Impact and Description of Damage: Based on the available geographic records of this moth, it is predicted that 48% of the U.S. will be suitable for survival of this moth. Introduction and Distribution: Spodoptera littoralis, also known as the African Cotton Leafworm, Egyptian Cotton Leafworm or the Mediterranean Brocade, is native to Africa and Israel and widely found in both Africa and the Mediterranean Europe.It has been recorded several times in the UK, and even though it has been intercepted at U.S. ports, it is not known to be established in North America. Ulat yang tidak berbulu oleh awam biasa disebut ulat tentara atau ulat grayak.. Di Indonesia, ulat grayak utama adalah Spodoptera exigua (larva berwarna coklat kehijauan) dan S. litura (larva berwarna coklat). We found that exposure to 0.5% indole-3-methanol (I3C), xanthotoxin, and rotenone (ROT) significantly retarded the growth of Spodoptera litura larvae. CONCLUSION The study on biology of Spodoptera litura on castor leaves provides information on different life stage parameters and which confirmed the presence of egg, larval, prepupal and adult stages in its life cycle. Two ranges which were taken for these studies were 40% humidity & 20°C temperature. 0000001644 00000 n Spodoptera NPVs for Control of Spodoptera Species. Selama ini untukSpodoptera litura banyak makan diwaktu malam hari saja, sedang pada siang harinya tidur dan sembunyi. Ocete Rubio E, 1984. Between 2 and 5 days after emergence, females lay 1000-2000 eggs in egg masses of 100-300 underneath leaves and covered with brown scales from the body of the mother. Grpllsia, 40:195-206. Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an important herbivorous pest responsible for widespread economic damage to numerous field vegetables and ornamental plants in tropical and subtropical regions [23]. 0000097968 00000 n B.A. To study the life cycle of Spodoptera litura. Susceptible crops include asparagus, cabbage, pepper, tomato, lettuce, celery, strawberry, eggplant, sugar beet, alfalfa, and cotton. Spodoptera litura - Duration: 1:15. e-Plant Health 1,130 views. S. littoralis is found widely in Africa, Mediterranean Europe and Middle Eastern countries.It is a highly polyphagous organism that is a pest of many cultivated plants and crops. As a result of fluctuation, insect can shorten or elongate their life cycle. Two ranges which were taken for these studies were 40% humidity & 20°C temperature. Ocete Rubio E, 1984. Shukla A, Patel P R, 2011. ��up��K� IxRy �[� t7-�C��K͈�� (��Kh�{�{E��eu�Tu�I:Ni��=y���4�Xi�i��U�njXX7�.����9r� endstream endobj 61 0 obj 152 endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 7 0 R /Resources 14 0 R /Contents [ 24 0 R 32 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 /Thumb 1 0 R /Annots 13 0 R >> endobj 13 0 obj [ ] endobj 14 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB /ImageC ] /Font << /F4 16 0 R /F6 17 0 R /F8 26 0 R /F10 30 0 R /F12 34 0 R /F14 45 0 R /F16 44 0 R >> /XObject << /Im1 55 0 R /Im2 56 0 R /Im3 57 0 R /Im4 58 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 59 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs5 22 0 R /Cs9 20 0 R >> >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Encoding /Differences [ 1 /S /p /o /d /t /e /r /a /space /l /i /u ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Encoding 19 0 R /BaseFont /Helvetica-Bold /ToUnicode 21 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Encoding 15 0 R /BaseFont /Helvetica-BoldOblique /ToUnicode 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 308 >> stream Adults are active during night and live for about 8 to 10 days. Mochida O (1973) Two important pests, Spodoptera litura and S. littoralis on various crops morphological discrimination of the adult, pupal and larval stages. Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) on groundnut was undertaken to study the development revealed that there was 10 percent mortality during egg stage and the maximum duration of egg, larva and pupa was 3, 19 and 10 days, respectively. Spodoptera littoralis, also referred to as the African cotton leafworm or Egyptian cotton leafworm or Mediterranean brocade, is a species of moth in the family Noctuidae. Spodoptera exigua is a highly dispersive, polyphagous species that is a serious pest of vegetable, field and flower crops. OEPP/EPPO, 2015. Larvanya (ulatnya) dikenal sebagai hama yang sangat merusak. The Spodoptera complex consists of important species that attack a wide variety of field and vegetable crops. Siklus Hidup Ulat Grayak (Spodoptera litura, F) dan Tingkat Serangan pada Beberapa Varietas Unggul Kedelai di Sulawesi Selatan Abdul Fattah dan Asriyanti Ilyas Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Sulawesi Selatan Jl.Perintis Kemerdekaan Km 17,5.Makassar,Telepon : (0411) 556 449 E-mail : abdulfattah911@ymail.com Abstrak Ulat grayak S. litura merupakan salah satu hama yang banyak … Spodoptera litura (F.) (to-518 Florida Entomologist 91(4) December 2008 bacco cutworm, cluster caterpillar, and rice cut-worm, among other common names) attacks a wide range of crops including cotton, peanuts (groundnuts), rice, soybeans, vegetables, and or-namental plants (EPPO/CABI 1997). FEDERICI, in Handbook of Biological Control, 1999. 0000008964 00000 n 1 0 obj insects Article Susceptibility of Various Developmental Stages of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to Entomopathogenic Nematodes Rajendra Acharya 1,2, Hwal-Su Hwang 1,3, Md Munir Mostafiz 1,2, Yeon-Su Yu 4 and Kyeong-Yeoll Lee 1,2,3,5,* 1 Department of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea; … At high tem­per­a­tures, the egg stage lasts about 3 days, the lar­val stage lasts 18 to 20 days, the pupal stage lasts 5 days, and adult moths live 4 to 10 days. Present study proves the utility of COI for identification of S. litura and S. exigua irrespective of their life stages, and also draws inferences on the phylogenetic relationships between the 3 pest species. The Oriental leafworm is a highly polyphagous defoliator on many cultivated plants. Influence of abiotic factors was studied on Spodoptera litura Fabricius, 1775 by decreasing temperature & humidity from the optimum conditions (27±2°C Temp & 70±5 % RH). <>>> 0000003462 00000 n Pinhey ECG, 1975. Purification and Characterization of the protein; Determination of the amino acid sequence of the protein. Grpllsia, 40:195-206. It is a serious pest of various economically important crops such as cotton, tomato, groundnut, chilli, tobacco, caster, okra and pulses etc. stream Two ranges which were taken for these studies were 40% humidity & 20°C temperature. 0000004081 00000 n There are significant differences between the control and the treated groups (P=0.05; Paired t-test). Spodoptera litura Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa serangan S. litura pada di pertanaman kedelai mulai ditemukan pada 1 minggu setelah tanaman (MST) dengan intensitas serangan 6,06% pada varietas Anjasmoro dan 2,55% pada varietas Kipas Merah. More than 100 species of host plants are reported, many of which are of economic importance (EPPO/CABI, 1997, Robinson et al., 2010). The number of generations occurring in an area varies with the appearance of the dispersing adults. Entomol rnithol Herpetol 3: 118. doi:10.41722161-0983.1000118 Page 3 of 5 oe 3 e of on = = A-() () Mean ± SE percent of Spodoptera litura eggs that failed to hatch. The life cycle is completed in about 30 days during the summer, but 60 days in the spring and autumn, and 80 to 90 days during the winter. 0000009537 00000 n Applied Entomology and Zoology 8, 205-214. As a result of fluctuation, insect can shorten or elongate their life cycle. Spodoptera litura is an important polyphagous pest in India, China and Japan. Koppert Biological Systems 159,094 views. The life cycle of thrips - Duration: 2:27. 0000010718 00000 n We aimed to study the biodiversity of the microbiota across the life cycle of S. exigua and to provide a better and obtain insight into new pest control strategies. morfologi spodoptera litura pdf. The Spodoptera complex consists of important species that attack a wide variety of field and vegetable crops. Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) is a cosmopolitan polyphagous insect pest ofmanyfood crops and tobacco. Abstract. 0000002807 00000 n insects Article Susceptibility of Various Developmental Stages of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, to Entomopathogenic Nematodes Rajendra Acharya 1,2, Hwal-Su Hwang 1,3, Md Munir Mostafiz 1,2, Yeon-Su Yu 4 and Kyeong-Yeoll Lee 1,2,3,5,* 1 Department of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea; … 0000010953 00000 n 4 0 obj Intensitas serangan mengalami peningkatan pada 5 MST bijipada varietas Anjasmoro dengan intensitas serangan sebesar 9,39% Varietas Anjasmorodan 6 … On the other hand, species like Spodoptera frugiperda, Heliothis virescens, Gamma irradiation of Spodoptera litura larvae induced an abatement in their. The adult female and male are hairy. 0000010213 00000 n Influence of abiotic factors was studied on Spodoptera litura Fabricius, 1775 by decreasing temperature & humidity from the optimum conditions (27±2°C Temp & 70±5 % RH). Influence of abiotic factors was studied on Spodoptera litura Fabricius, 1775 by decreasing temperature & humidity from the optimum conditions (27±2°C Temp & 70±5 % RH). We demonstrated that S. frugiperda genes are enriched in taste sensory perception and nervous system, obviously different from those of S. litura. Effect of Calotropis procera leaf extract on Spodoptera litura (Fab.) The effect of various flavonoids, lectins and phenyl β‐ D ‐glucoside on larval survival, weights and the activities of digestive (total serine protease and trypsin) and detoxifying (esterase and glutathione‐S‐transferase) enzymes of Spodoptera litura larvae at 7 days after treatment was studied through diet incorporation assay. The average life cycle will be completed in about 25 days. Spodoptera adalah ngengat yang termasuk dalam suku Noctuidae. 0000024451 00000 n %PDF-1.5 0000013669 00000 n Integrated Management of Spodoptera litura: A Review Kuldeep Srivastava1*, Devinder Sharma2, ... different aspects of a life cycle of the S. litura [6-7]. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. The female is bigger with a stout abdomen while the male is narrower and tapering towards the tip. 0000002682 00000 n KEY WORDS: Mango, Spodoptera litura, biology and morphometry. Effects of lunar cycle on light trap catches of Spodoptera litura Fabricius. Life cycle of the Oriental leafworm (copyright: A.C. Hodges, IFAS, University of Florida). 0000005031 00000 n x��=�r�ȕ��?��� �@2�*���l&�X�K�� h��a�g�r�9ݸ ��l�$`����~i�7�U�?����ᇛۺN׻l�}��/���9d7��ۼH�,n�N5��1K7Y�����;����W7�Ǹw����B��{�O0�Ow��=�~z[���՟^���{�z�?�~�@y~~���`�����i��eY��^$� 5�@KO�A" �/��0�y��(Ѓ����$��k���93O��qF�ւ�@�Y������,���_��?����-�� R޳e@��{Ŵ��c��x�Z�@qo����4f��b�Ł�����$��t!�5 The oxidative stress in S. litura larvae exposed to phytochemicals was increased. 2 0 obj Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. Smith) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) 2 Duration of the egg stage is only two to three days during the summer months. The total life cycle from egg laying to adult emergence completes in 27-31 days with an average of 28.81±1.99 days. 0000013017 00000 n 0000004261 00000 n 0000008304 00000 n 0000006830 00000 n 0000002144 00000 n morfologi spodoptera litura pdf. Spodoptera litura Fabricius (Order-Lepidoptera) or common cutworm is one of the most destructive insect pest of agricultural crops, with more than 120 host plants globally [].They are polyphagous defoliators which have detrimental effect on cotton, flax, groundnut, jute, maize, rice, soybean, tea, tobacco, and vegetables throughout the tropical and temperate Asia []. Localization of proteinacious factors from the male reproductive system of S. litura which are responsible for modifying the physiology of egg production and egg laying. Mochida O (1973) Two important pests, Spodoptera litura and S. littoralis on various crops morphological discrimination of the adult, pupal and larval stages. Our objective was to study the life fecundity tables of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) reared on tobacco cv. 0000007695 00000 n General information about Spodoptera litura (PRODLI) Name Language; cluster caterpillar: English: cotton leafworm: English: cotton worm %PDF-1.4 %���� Spodoptera NPVs for Control of Spodoptera Species. At lower temperatures, for example on glasshouse chrysanthemums in Europe, larva… 3.1 Morphological description of Spodoptera litura 3.1.1 Egg In the laboratory, oviposition occurred during night-time and Image Credit: young larvae - Brent Rowell, University of Kentucky, Growers guide to Bt; egg mass - Merle Shepard, Gerald R. Carner, P.A. Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and 0000006380 00000 n Yoshiaki Noma, Yoshinori Asakawa, in Comprehensive Natural Products II, 2010. 0000001422 00000 n %���� 2:27. @ĕm@E��F���!���_��!n�~-�����*dBmh�Vw���#�]8m����?؄�Pns]x㹧�4iy The number of generations ... Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. The female is pale brown while the male is darker. As in most other parts of the tropic, these armyworms are subjected to a disease caused by a Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV) infection in the field … 0000059073 00000 n endobj The eggs hatch in about 4 days in warm conditions, or up to 11- 12 days in winter. 0000014596 00000 n 0000006966 00000 n B.A. We aimed to study the biodiversity of the microbiota across the life cycle of S. exigua and to provide a better and obtain insight into new pest control strategies. Nasr ESA (1973) Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the life cycle of the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. FEDERICI, in Handbook of Biological Control, 1999. The young larvae (first to third instar) feed in groups, leaving the opposite epidermis of the leaf intact. As a result of fluctuation, insect can shorten or elongate their life cycle. Bioassays (at generation G 1) with a newly collected field population of Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Multan, Pakistan, showed resistance ratios of 15, 23, 37, and 16 for indoxacarb, spinosad, abamectin, and emamectin, respectively, compared with a laboratory susceptible population, Lab-PK. The larvae feed in a group when they are … Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 34:257-270. +ga�c/�Ui���̟�u�J�'�P�b��)|�� �`��}XB#D��X�~(����|��D|L�������`O���S▞V,2��͞���23Rs�e��XǦ@G�o�.Ԏ��8m�ͦp�������嶠`2�r8��F�$$X*��q��#.�'����X`5����NŊ'*���@�F����X���m�Jb�S=;��H ��s�u�ƪ١��q $TQD$������͊�Z Fecundity is reduced by low humidity. The sweetpotato hornworm, Agrius convolvuli (Sphingidae) was reared on sweetpotato leaves. Spodoptera litura, male Photo by N. Wright, FDACS-DPI 4 1 2 3 5. ao Patil RA, Mehta DM, Jat BL (2014) Studies on Life Fecundity Tables of Spodoptera Litura Fabricius on Tobacco Nicotiana tabacum Linnaeus. 0000004282 00000 n 0000103636 00000 n Perbedaan Spodoptera litura denganSpodoptera frugiperda adalah pada kerakusan dalam memakan tanaman, dimana untuk ulat grayak asli Amerika Tengah ini memiliki kerakusan dalam makan tanaman hingga 10 kali lipat dibanding spesies lokal. At present, control of S. litura is primarily achieved through the application of various chemical insecticides. 0000005511 00000 n Applied Entomology and Zoology 8, 205-214. Spodoptera litura (F.) (to-518 Florida Entomologist 91(4) December 2008 bacco cutworm, cluster caterpillar, and rice cut-worm, among other common names) attacks a wide range of crops including cotton, peanuts (groundnuts), rice, soybeans, vegetables, and or … 0000008066 00000 n 0000012397 00000 n 57 (2), 117-119. Fand BB, Sul NT, Bal SK, Minhas PS (2015) Temperature impacts the development and survival of common cutworm (Spodoptera litura): simulation and visualization of potential population growth in India under warmer temperatures through life cycle … Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera litura 3 extra instar, and maturation may take up to 3 months. 1 Introduction. Study of the biological cycle of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) at different temperatures. separata were fed on rice leaves. ��җU�+��R�E�F�̋L�Q�$��W���C?�L8�Q=��P\��d�Z��-���/"��#S��$P�3I5,Q�^�P?Ҧx��X�f�y����z=�}�(~ (�gR�N�Og�d�kAݢQP�x��}�ɾ@x)�)FH�k? Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students.ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. �.v���"�OY�+��o`��fB4�Oʥ֊��M�[9O!��! The pre-oviposition period ranged from 29th to 31st day of pivotal age. On the other hand, species like Spodoptera frugiperda, Heliothis virescens, Gamma irradiation of Spodoptera litura larvae induced an abatement in their. the life cycle of FAW; and know how to monitor and manage the pest. the larvae of S. litura. 0000012376 00000 n Michigan State University’s invasive species factsheets. worm, Spodoptera litura (Noctuidae) were reared on an artiˆcial diet (Insecta-LF; Nihon Nosan Kougyo Ltd.). The life cycle is completed in about 30 days during the summer, but 60 days in the spring and autumn, and 80 to 90 days during the winter. ��VB�J�Yv�FT�����Lvzk$c��7�bɈN�{�s6��3�rn�&��)hJ��r��]�IǍF.���Fch���sE��.�B�V�s �ǭ��`�-v��Z��E�{�Ն���. Purification and Characterization of the protein; … OEPP/EPPO, 2015. 1:15. Spodoptera exigua showed intraspecific variations with respect to different geographic locations. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 34:257-270. Spodoptera littoralis, S. litura, S. frugiperda and S. eridania are important Noctuid pest species that are highly polyphagous. 0000009558 00000 n <>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.02 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Females contributed highest number of progeny (mx= 508.92) in the life cycle on the 41st day of pivotal age. endobj M�~b��Е����&:��7���J:��de�Nkr�ʜ&P�v�Ȼ�������wn?�@=�q����(0����uo^� endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Encoding /Differences [ 1 /C /l /u /s /t /e /r /space /a /p /i /parenleft /bracketleft /F /b /c /bracketright /parenright /A /g /P /o /f /h /D /two /zero /hyphen /three /comma /R /d /y /I /S /B /N /one /nine /four /five /six /m /n /L ] >> endobj 20 0 obj [ /Separation /All 22 0 R 54 0 R ] endobj 21 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 491 >> stream ȧ�t�1�/��Ѳ?y0�W/�~~%�D �f�S��$(�U������i���������HT� Its accidental introduction into . Oriental leafworm Spodoptera litura. METHODS AND RESULTS: The bacterial diversity across the life cycle of S. exigua was studied using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Eggs are laid two to three days after mating. This lasts about 6 to 7 days. 0000002463 00000 n 0000008283 00000 n <> Here we generated comparative genomic analyses between S. frugiperda and its native relative, S. litura, which differs in host preference, locomotivity and production behavior. Thus, the short­est lifes­pan of Spodoptera ex­igua is about 27 days. klasifikasi spodoptera litura pdf Hymenia recurvalis [Spoladea recurvalis], Spodoptera litura, Heliothis armigera and sometimes grasshoppers are the most harmful pests. Females lay batches of up to 300 eggs at night on the underside of the host leaves and six to nine batches of eggs in her life time. 0000001887 00000 n AIMS: Spodoptera exigua is a serious pest of many agricultural crops. �q=�;�Y�AD�C�G�U=��R,g��=�P�4��ҧ]�I��g���C���(~uh3�Ҳz����#J�%��eD�2�����T���tw�3. 0000003190 00000 n 0000001908 00000 n The last instar larvae of H. armigera and S. litura were fed on cabbage, andM. The increasing infestation of �N� ��y�I 3.1 Morphological description of Spodoptera litura 3.1.1 Egg In the laboratory, oviposition occurred during night-time and 0000002166 00000 n Effect of Azadirachta indica Extracts on Oriental Leafworm, Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) www.ctnr.org 3 Volume 2 | DOI 10.1511/CTNR.2017.000. Life cycle Adults can live for 8 to 10 days Eggs hatch in 4 to 12 days Larvae pass through six instars in about 13 days After the mature larval stage, 0000013038 00000 n Results pertaining to biology of S. litura on castor revealed that total life cycle period lasted for about 28.25 to 36.00 days with an average of 32.13±5.48 days (Table 1 and Fig 3). The most improtant pests include S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. litura, and S. littoralis. 0000005398 00000 n Spodoptera litura. Michigan State University’s invasive species factsheets. Spodoptera littoralis, also referred to as the African cotton leafworm or Egyptian cotton leafworm or Mediterranean brocade, is a species of moth in the family Noctuidae. 0000008182 00000 n 9 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 12 /H [ 1644 264 ] /L 107973 /E 104992 /N 1 /T 107676 >> endobj xref 9 53 0000000016 00000 n 0000001493 00000 n 0000006231 00000 n The oviposition started from 32nd day of pivotal age and continued till 39th day. The most improtant pests include S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. litura, and S. littoralis. EPPO Standards PM 7/124(1) Diagnostic protocol for Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera eridania. 0000010832 00000 n However, the bacterial communities of S. exigua are poorly studied, particularly over their entire life cycle. 3 0 obj To study the life cycle of Spodoptera litura. Localization of proteinacious factors from the male reproductive system of S. litura which are responsible for modifying the physiology of egg production and egg laying. trailer << /Size 62 /Info 6 0 R /Encrypt 11 0 R /Root 10 0 R /Prev 107667 /ID[<94a14b1057b7ec684bb767f39280140c><045a7154c01a6e9dba68408a12a4dd79>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 10 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 7 0 R /Metadata 8 0 R >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Filter /Standard /R 2 /O ( U�V�.�`�����Dz�-���#_m�_�}�g) /U ( =Ί���&R�L�ec�-6��^ �r�%S+) /P -28 /V 1 /Length 40 >> endobj 60 0 obj << /S 36 /T 162 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 61 0 R >> stream S. exigua is native to Southeast Asia but is now found in Africa, Southern Europe, Japan, Australia and North America. The ability to diapause is not present in this species. Sementara Spodoptera frugiperda, … Counts were based on 20 eggs per treatment, each treatment repeated five times. Results pertaining to biology of S. litura on castor revealed that total life cycle period lasted for about 28.25 to 36.00 days with an average of 32.13±5.48 days (Table 1 and Fig 3). Larvae develop through six instars in 15-23 days at 25-26 °C. 0000011632 00000 n 4 Spodoptera littoralis Below are five characters that in combination aid in distinguishing this non-indigenous species from some other Spodoptera species. Life cycle Adults can live for 8 to 10 days Eggs hatch in 4 to 12 days Larvae pass through six instars in about 13 days After the mature larval stage, pupation takes place. Prepared by T. Noma, M. Colunga-Garcia, M. Brewer, J. Landis, and A. Gooch as a part of Michigan State University IPM Program and . Spodoptera litura is a notorious leaf feeding insect pest of more than one hundred plants around the Asia-Pacific region. endobj Ga. Bakavathiappan*, S. Baskaran, M. Pavaraj and S. Jeyaparvathi ABSTRACT The study was carried out to determine the antifeedant activity of different solvent extracts (0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 5%) of Calotropis procera leaves against third instar larvae of Spodoptera litura by leaf dip method. Anand-119 under controlled condition at 26 ± 1°C. replicates that were sprayed with 2 mL of water, for a total of 100 eggs exposed to either the neem extract or to the water control. Kehilangan hasil akibat serangan hama S. litura dapat mencapai 80%, bahkan puso jika tidak dikendalikan (Marwoto & Suharsono, 2008). 0000008943 00000 n 0000011653 00000 n Hymenia recurvalis [Spoladea recurvalis], Spodoptera litura, Heliothis armigera and sometimes grasshoppers are the most harmful pests. EPPO Standards PM 7/124(1) Diagnostic protocol for Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera eridania. The number that survived from 100 eggs to adult emergence was 73 individuals. Figure 3. They hatch in three to four days. 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