[38][39] [18][19] Plebiscite definition is - a vote by which the people of an entire country or district express an opinion for or against a proposal especially on a choice of government or ruler. Belgium and Japan annexed very small territories. The Treaty of Versailles provided for plebiscites to determine the ownership of the region. [17] History and Etymology for versant. [133], German officials conspired systematically to evade the clauses of the treaty, by failing to meet disarmament deadlines, refusing Allied officials access to military facilities, and maintaining and hiding weapon production. Article 198 prohibited Germany from having an air force, including naval air forces, and required Germany to hand over all aerial related materials. Search and learn to pronounce words and phrases in this language (Telugu).Learn to pronounce with our guides. Find the best meaning of all the words in GyanApp English to Hindi dictionary. Noun 1. [12] This loss equated to a third of the Russian population, a quarter of its territory, around a third of the country's arable land, three-quarters of its coal and iron, a third of its factories (totalling 54 percent of the nation's industrial capacity), and a quarter of its railroads. Spa Conference (1920) sets the percentage each country would receive of the total: France 52%, Great Britain 22%, Italy 10%, Belgium 8%. In November 1918, the Republican Party won the Senate election by a slim margin. The German government tried to obtain a peace settlement based on the Fourteen Points, and maintained it was on this basis that they surrendered. There was immense dissatisfaction with Duan Qirui's government, which had secretly negotiated with the Japanese in order to secure loans to fund their military campaigns against the south. Nonetheless, even the payment of this small percentage of the original reparations (132 billion gold marks) still placed a significant burden on the German economy. [124], The United States Third Army entered Germany with 200,000 men. [126][127] Article 156 of the treaty transferred German concessions in Shandong, China, to Japan, not to China. The Allied bloc (France, the United Kingdom, and the United States, as well as representatives of their allies during the war) met at the Paris Peace Conference to agree on the terms of peace with Germany, the former Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Bulgaria. The end of passive resistance in the Ruhr allowed Germany to undertake a currency reform and to negotiate the Dawes Plan, which led to the withdrawal of French and Belgian troops from the Ruhr Area in 1925. Third Reich Summary | Significance, Facts, Definition & History. Furthermore, payments made between 1919 and 1921 were taken into account reducing the sum to 41 billion gold marks. On 5 May 1921, the reparation Commission established the London Schedule of Payments and a final reparation sum of 132 billion gold marks to be demanded of all the Central Powers. Ruanda and Urundi were allocated to Belgium, whereas German South-West Africa went to South Africa and Britain obtained German East Africa. II and III. Territorial changes imposed by the treaty were also factored in. [44][45] Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa had each made significant contributions to the British war effort, but as separate countries, rather than as British colonies. Japan was granted all German possessions in the Pacific north of the equator and those south of the equator went to Australia, except for German Samoa, which was taken by New Zealand.[64][n. [160] The other Central Powers on the German side signed separate treaties. Article 117 of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye with Austria, Article 161 of the Treaty of Trianon with Hungary, Article 121 of the Treaty Areas of Neuilly-sur-Seine with Bulgaria and Article 231 of the Treaty of Sevres with Turkey. Germany surrendered eight battleships, eight light cruisers, forty-two destroyers, and fifty torpedo boats for decommissioning. Thirty-two auxiliary ships were to be disarmed and converted to merchant use.[n. Es wird von uns verlangt, daß wir uns als die allein Schuldigen am Krieg bekennen; ein solches Bekenntnis wäre in meinem Munde eine Lüge". Meaning of Versailles. Desertion rates within the German army began to increase, and civilian strikes drastically reduced war production. This is, for me, our main and principal expansion." Nous utilisons des cookies pour vous garantir la meilleure expérience sur notre site web. Sensing victory before American armies could be ready, Germany now shifted forces to the Western Front and tried to overwhelm the Allies. Although it is often referred to as the "Versailles Conference", only the actual signing of the treaty took place at the historic palace. When the result was announced 4,100 people, including 800 refugees from Germany fled to France.[n. The four Dominions and India all signed the Treaty separately from Britain,[n. 2] a clear recognition by the international community that the Dominions were no longer British colonies. (, da Atti Parlamentari, Camera dei Deputati, Discussioni, Foreign Minister Brockdorff-Ranzau when faced with the conditions on 7 May: "Wir kennen die Wucht des Hasses, die uns hier entgegentritt. The Rhineland was to be demilitarized, all fortifications in the Rhineland and 50 kilometres (31 miles) east of the river were to be demolished and new construction was forbidden.[n. France was able to make the claim that the provinces of Alsace-Lorraine were indeed part of France and not part of Germany by disclosing a letter sent from the Prussian King to the Empress Eugénie that Eugénie provided, in which William I wrote that the territories of Alsace-Lorraine were requested by Germany for the sole purpose of national defense and not to expand the German territory. [43] However, the British wartime coalition was re-elected during the so-called Coupon election at the end of 1918, with a policy of squeezing the Germans "'til the pips squeak". Wilson firmly opposed harsh treatment on Germany. 37] However, these goals were recognized by all leaders as not easily attainable. In a passionate speech before the National Assembly on 12 May 1919, he called the treaty a "murderous plan" and exclaimed, On 9 January 1923, Lithuanian forces invaded the territory during the Klaipėda Revolt. [68], In February and March 1920, the Schleswig Plebiscites were held. Part XIII organized the establishment of the International Labour Officer, to regulate hours of work, including a maximum working day and week; the regulation of the labour supply; the prevention of unemployment; the provision of a living wage; the protection of the worker against sickness, disease and injury arising out of his employment; the protection of children, young persons and women; provision for old age and injury; protection of the interests of workers when employed abroad; recognition of the principle of freedom of association; the organization of vocational and technical education and other measures.[n. These members formed over 50 commissions that made various recommendations, many of which were incorporated into the final text of the treaty. "[154] Published by at April 16, 2019. Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required "Germany [to] accept the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage" during the war (the other members of the Central Powers signed treaties containing similar articles). The actual impact of the treaty is also disputed. The German government answered with "passive resistance", which meant that coal miners and railway workers refused to obey any instructions by the occupation forces. 35] [73] However, public opinion changed as German complaints mounted. [37] [50], Vittorio Emanuele Orlando and his foreign minister Sidney Sonnino, an Anglican of British origins, worked primarily to secure the partition of the Habsburg Empire and their attitude towards Germany was not as hostile. Germany's eastern frontiers faced Russia and Austria, who had both in the past balanced German power. [69] Delegate Harold Nicolson wrote "are we making a good peace? Learn more. [163] Evans further noted that the parties of the Weimar Coalition, namely the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the social liberal German Democratic Party (DDP) and the Christian democratic Centre Party, were all equally opposed to Versailles, and it is false to claim as some historians have that opposition to Versailles also equalled opposition to the Weimar Republic. To this extent, she succeeded in her war aims. Clemenceau intended to ensure the security of France, by weakening Germany economically, militarily, territorially and by supplanting Germany as the leading producer of steel in Europe. [134] Marshal Ferdinand Foch stated "this (treaty) is not peace. [57], In Central Europe Germany was to recognize the independence of Czechoslovakia (which had actually been controlled by Austria) and cede parts of the province of Upper Silesia.[n. It was also negotiated for the French Army to be reduced. When the outcome of the vote became known, 4,100 (including 800 refugees who had previously fled Germany) residents fled over the border into France. [91][92] As a result, relations with the West deteriorated.[93]. In conjunction, Germany was forbidden to manufacture or import aircraft or related material for a period of six months following the signing of the treaty.[n. Japan attempted to amend Racial Equality Proposal in the treaty, which would require racial equality among members of the League of Nations. The goal after World War I was to restore European stability and maintain eternal peace. France had also been more physically damaged than any other nation (the so-called zone rouge (Red Zone); the most industrialized region and the source of most coal and iron ore in the north-east had been devastated and in the final days of the war mines had been flooded and railways, bridges and factories destroyed. [173] The German navy was allowed six pre-dreadnought battleships and was limited to a maximum of six light cruisers (not exceeding 6,000 long tons (6,100 t)), twelve destroyers (not exceeding 800 long tons (810 t)) and twelve torpedo boats (not exceeding 200 long tons (200 t)) and was forbidden submarines.[n. [111][112][113][114] Following the signing of the peace treaty, the numbers drastically decreased and by 1926 the occupation force numbered only 76,000 men. In regards to the East Prussia plebiscite, historian Richard Blanke wrote that "no other contested ethnic group has ever, under un-coerced conditions, issued so one-sided a statement of its national preference". Portugal entered the war on the Allied side in 1916 primarily to ensure the security of its African colonies, which were threatened with seizure by both Britain and Germany. [144] [12][13], During the autumn of 1918, the Central Powers began to collapse. [104] Between 1919 and 1921, three major outbreaks of violence took place between German and Polish civilians, resulting in German and Polish military forces also becoming involved. Clemenceau had told the Chamber of Deputies, in December 1918, that his goal was to maintain an alliance with both countries. Pronunciation of Versailles with 5 audio pronunciations, 5 synonyms, 1 meaning, 6 translations, 15 sentences and more for Versailles. Poland appeared so close to collapse that even Polish voters had cast their ballots for Germany". If there was even the slightest chance that the army could hold out, Ebert intended to recommend against ratifying the treaty. : During the Paris Peace Conference the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, especially the Treaty of Versailles. The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 was one of the peace treaties signed at the end of the First World War and officially ended it. Germans of all political shades denounced the treaty — particularly the provision that blamed Germany for starting the war — as an insult to the nation's honour. A lack of American ratification of the treaty or joining the League of Nations left France unwilling to disarm, which resulted in a German desire to rearm. The total number of troops committed to the occupation rapidly dwindled as veteran soldiers were demobilized, and were replaced by inexperienced men who had finished basic training following the cessation of hostilities. The League of Nations intended to arbitrate international disputes and thus avoid future wars. The following citations are direct links to primary sources held on Wikisource. The promoted idea called for the major powers to act as disinterested trustees over a region, aiding the native populations until they could govern themselves. How to use plebiscite in a sentence. The Great Depression exacerbated the issue and led to a collapse of the German economy. [156], It has been argued – for instance by historian Gerhard Weinberg in his book A World at Arms[157] – that the treaty was in fact quite advantageous to Germany. One of the most important and controversial provisions of the treaty stipulated that Germany was obliged to accept responsibility for initiating the war (together with Austria and Hungary, in accordance with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and the Treaty of Trianon), to enter into a process of disarmament, make significant land concessions and pay heavy compensation. 120, p. 206. Because Germany was not allowed to take part in the negotiations, the German government issued a protest against what it considered to be unfair demands, and a "violation of honour",[95] The treaty required Germany to disarm, make ample territorial concessions, and pay reparations to certain countries that had formed the Entente powers. [115] On 28 June 1914, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, was assassinated by a Serbian nationalist. Germany, on the other hand, saw the terms as leaving them defenseless against any potential enemy. 14] 17], The treaty was comprehensive and complex in the restrictions imposed upon the post-war German armed forces (the Reichswehr). [112] Norman Davies wrote that "a curious oversight" of the military restrictions were that they "did not include rockets in its list of prohibited weapons", which provided Wernher von Braun an area to research within eventually resulting in "his break [that] came in 1943" leading to the development of the V-2 rocket. In the end, Portugal ratified the treaty, but got little out of the war, which cost more than 8,000 Portuguese troops and as many as 100,000 of her African colonial subjects their lives. What does Versailles mean? [8], On 8 January 1918, President Woodrow Wilson issued the nation's postwar goals, the Fourteen Points. [74], Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald, following the German re-militarisation of the Rhineland in 1936, stated that he was "pleased" that the treaty was "vanishing", expressing his hope that the French had been taught a "severe lesson".[70]. 21] If Germany had not committed aggression, a staged withdrawal would take place; after five years, the Cologne bridgehead and the territory north of a line along the Ruhr would be evacuated. In the West, Germany was balanced only by France and Belgium, both of which were smaller in population and less economically vibrant than Germany. In addition, it established that Allied forces would occupy the Rhineland. [117], Belgium maintained an occupation force of roughly 10,000 troops throughout the initial years. Dictionary entry overview: What does Versailles mean? The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 was one of the peace treaties signed at the end of the First World War and officially ended it. The Treaty of Versailles (French: Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The London Conference (1920) fixed the total amount of reparations: 140 billion gold marks, an enormous amount. It is easy to say what should have been done, but more difficult to have found a way of doing it. Memel was to be ceded to the Allied and Associated powers, for disposal according to their wishes.[n. [116] [163] Finally, Evans argued that it is untrue that Versailles caused the premature end of the Republic, instead contending that it was the Great Depression of the early 1930s that put an end to German democracy. [146][147][148] The resulting rearmament programs was allotted 35 billion Reichsmarks over an eight-year period. Not even Napoleon himself could touch England. [108], On 13 January 1935, 15 years after the Saar Basin had been placed under the protection of the League of Nations, a plebiscite was held to determine the future of the area. The commission was required to "give to the German Government a just opportunity to be heard", and to submit its conclusions by 1 May 1921. Definition of treaty of versailles in the Definitions.net dictionary. [82], After the Versailles conference, Democratic President Woodrow Wilson claimed that "at last the world knows America as the savior of the world! [ix] These sharpening ethnic conflicts would lead to public demands to reattach the annexed territory in 1938 and become a pretext for Hitler's annexations of Czechoslovakia and parts of Poland. Human translations with examples: elysée, versailles, 2 versailles, Élysée palace, knossos palace. Blanke concluded that despite these protests "there is plenty of other evidence, including Reichstag election results both before and after 1921 and the large-scale emigration of Polish-speaking Upper Silesians to Germany after 1945, that their identification with Germany in 1921 was neither exceptional nor temporary" and "here was a large population of Germans and Poles—not coincidentally, of the same Catholic religion—that not only shared the same living space but also came in many cases to see themselves as members of the same national community". The legend of the "stab in the back" and the wish to revise the "Versailles diktat", ... telugu: డిక్టాట్ ... Also get the Hindi definition and the synonyms of the word diktat. The existence of these treaties tended to discredit Allied claims that Germany was the sole power with aggressive ambitions. The National Assembly voted in favour of signing the treaty by 237 to 138, with five abstentions (there were 421 delegates in total). Senate Documents: Addresses of President Wilson (May–November 1919), vol. Looking at the conference in retrospect, there is much to approve and yet much to regret. 25] The Treaty of Versailles was a peace treaty signed at the end of World War I that officially ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied countries. "The Treaty includes no provisions for the economic rehabilitation of Europe—nothing to make the defeated Central Empires into good neighbours, nothing to stabilize the new States of Europe, nothing to reclaim Russia; nor does it promote in any way a compact of economic solidarity amongst the Allies themselves; no arrangement was reached at Paris for restoring the disordered finances of France and Italy, or to adjust the systems of the Old World and the New. Earlier, on November 11, 1918, an armistice had been signed that put an end to the fighting. The number of officers and warrant officers was not allowed to exceed 1,500 men.[n. [20], In private Lloyd George opposed revenge and attempted to compromise between Clemenceau's demands and the Fourteen Points, because Europe would eventually have to reconcile with Germany. Orlando refused to see World War One as a mutilated victory, replying at nationalists calling for a greater expansion that "Italy today is a great state....on par with the great historic and contemporary states. Portions of Upper Silesia were to be ceded to Poland, with the future of the rest of the province to be decided by plebiscite. ', Role in the Weimar Republic's hyperinflation, Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Soviet–Czechoslovakia Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Soviet–British–French Moscow negotiations, assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, control of the Saar to the League of Nations, International Labour Organization § History, founding members of the League of Nations, Learn how and when to remove this template message, https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1918/commissar/gov.htm, http://www.fkoester.de/kursbuch/unterrichtsmaterial/13_2_74.html. 22] As part of the 1929 negotiations that would become the Young Plan, Stresemann and Aristide Briand negotiated the early withdrawal of Allied forces from the Rhineland. populism definition: 1. political ideas and activities that are intended to get the support of ordinary people by giving…. [45][46][43] By arguing that British war pensions and widows' allowances should be included in the German reparation sum, Lloyd George ensured that a large amount would go to the British Empire. 11, no. [57] The East Prussia plebiscite was held on 11 July 1920. "[v], However, the Republican Party, led by Henry Cabot Lodge, controlled the US Senate after the election of 1918, and the senators were divided into multiple positions on the Versailles question. rooster in Telugu translation and definition "rooster", English-Telugu ... though, in September 1783, thousands of spectators gathered at Versailles to witness the release of a balloon with a rooster, a duck, and a ... en Some practitioners looked for meaning in such things as the entrails of … A Versailles, l'Assemblée Paritaire ACP-CEE a élu son nouveau bureau. [56] The sovereignty of Schleswig-Holstein was to be resolved by a plebiscite to be held at a future time (see Schleswig Plebiscites). Although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The people of Schleswig were presented with only two choices: Danish or German sovereignty. English words for Marseille include Marseilles and Marseille. On 23 June, Bauer capitulated and sent a second telegram with a confirmation that a German delegation would arrive shortly to sign the treaty. Non-commissioned officers (NCOs) were not limited by the treaty, thus this loophole was exploited and as such the number of NCOs were vastly in excess to the number needed by the Reichswehr. Anger and dismay over the treaty's provisions helped pave the way for the establishment of Benito Mussolini's dictatorship three years later. The treaty restored the provinces of Alsace-Lorraine to France by rescinding the treaties of Versailles and Frankfurt of 1871 as they pertained to this issue.[n. The sense of betrayal led to great demonstrations in China such as the May 4th movement. The Treaty of Versailles was an important step in the status of the British Dominions under international law. Military structures and fortifications on the islands of Heligoland and Düne were to be destroyed.[n. [150] Wilson, a Democrat, refused to include prominent Republicans in the American delegation making his efforts seem partisan, and contributed to a risk of political defeat at home. The process proved to be complicated and the advice difficult to manage to reach an effective decision, so that only the four main heads of government remained. While the term was not used self-determination was assumed. An area of 51,800 square kilometres (20,000 square miles) was granted to Poland at the expense of Germany. The treaty is unacceptable. How to say Versailles in English? More recently economists have argued that the restriction of Germany to a small army saved it so much money it could afford the reparations payments. Wellington Koo refused to sign the treaty and the Chinese delegation at the Paris Peace Conference was the only nation that did not sign the Treaty of Versailles at the signing ceremony. appease definition: 1. to prevent further disagreement in arguments or war by giving to the opposing side an advantage…. For example, a 1921 German Government memo detailed 300 acts of violence from colonial troops, which included 65 murders and 170 sexual offenses. "[168], The Treaty of Versailles resulted in the creation of several thousand miles of new boundaries, with maps playing a central role in the negotiations at Paris. [50] The aim of the latter was to provide a forum to revise the peace treaties as needed, and deal with problems that arose as a result of the peace and the rise of new states. This treaty ended the war between Russia and the Central powers and annexed 1,300,000 square miles (3,400,000 km2) of territory and 62 million people. This was the public assessment of what the Central Powers combined could pay, and was also a compromise between Belgian, British, and French demands and assessments. 6, S. 129. [128], The German economy was so weak that only a small percentage of reparations was paid in hard currency. In January 1923, French and Belgian forces occupied the rest of the Ruhr area as a reprisal after Germany failed to fulfill reparation payments demanded by the Versailles Treaty. Despite the oppression and migration, Opole Silesia "remained ethnically mixed. The treaty has sometimes been cited as a cause of World War II: although its actual impact was not as severe as feared, its terms led to great resentment in Germany which powered the rise of the Nazi Party. The northern fringe, which voted in favour of Danish control, was incorporated into Denmark. Cartier asserts that, out of 1,058,000 Germans in Posen-West Prussia in 1921, 758,867 fled their homelands within five years due to Polish harassment. Clemenceau accepted the offer, in return for an occupation of the Rhineland for fifteen years and that Germany would also demilitarise the Rhineland. the return of Alsace and Lorraine to France, and that Germany had agreed to pay reparations. Britain and France should have (according to Barnett) "divided and permanently weakened" Germany by undoing Bismarck's work and partitioning Germany into smaller, weaker states so it could never have disrupted the peace of Europe again. The Council of Four paid no attention to these issues, being preoccupied with others—Clemenceau to crush the economic life of his enemy, Lloyd George to do a deal and bring home something which would pass muster for a week, the President to do nothing that was not just and right. [141][142] [7] The American war aim was to detach the war from nationalistic disputes and ambitions after the Bolshevik disclosure of secret treaties between the Allies. [172] Once the region was partitioned, both "Germany and Poland attempted to 'cleanse' their shares of Upper Silesia" via oppression resulting in Germans migrating to Germany and Poles migrating to Poland. Dissertation meaning in telugu; Tags . ", while General Jan Smuts (a member of the South African delegation) wrote to Lloyd-George, before the signing, that the treaty was unstable and declared "Are we in our sober senses or suffering from shellshock? The Bismarckian Reich was maintained as a political unit instead of being broken up, and Germany largely escaped post-war military occupation (in contrast to the situation following World War II). Le site est hébergé à la DSI du Rectorat de Versailles ; 3, bd de Lesseps, 78000 Versailles Mentions légales; Fièrement propulsé par Tempera & WordPress. Generally speaking, Sonnino was in line with the British position while Orlando favored a compromise between Clemenceau and Wilson. Although he shared his countrymen's disgust with the treaty, he was sober enough to consider the possibility that the government would not be in a position to reject it. Japanese nationalism grew in response to their growing mistrust of Western powers. [171] Richard Debo wrote "both Berlin and Warsaw believed the Soviet invasion of Poland had influenced the East Prussian plebiscites. We provide free, helpful guidelines and tips on how to do a language exchange, as well as free lesson plans designed by an expert in language exchange learning. The French garrison withdrew, and in February the Allies agreed to attach Memel as an "autonomous territory" to Lithuania. 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